Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Ulrich Johan Jacob Stehley (1700-1776)

Passengers abroad the Pink Plaisance, which landed at the port of Philadelphia; September 21, 1732

Name: Ulrich Staley, Stehli, Stiely, Stelley  Religion: "Swiss Mennonite" FA1: SEP 1732 Arrived in Philadelphia on the ship "Pink Plaisance". ________________________List of foreigners imported in the ship "Pink Plaisance",John Paret, Master, from Rotterdam. (Holland) Qualified Sept. 21 1732. STELLEY, Ulrich...............................32 STALLEY, Anna.................................27 STELEY, Hans Peter STELIN, Anna Barbra(Steley)______________________________________________________________________Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s Name: Ulrich Steley Year: 1732 Age: 32 Estimated Birth Year: abt 1700 Place: America Family Members: Wife Anna 27; Child Hans Peter; Child Anna Barbra Source Publication Code: 8042 Primary Immigrant: Steley, Ulrich Annotation:
Date and place of arrival or settlement. Periodical published by Pennsylvania Folklife Society, P.O. Box 92, Collegeville, PA, 19426. Also see no. 9968 below. Source Bibliography: SCHELBERT, LEO, and SANDRA LUEBKING. "Swiss Mennonite Family Names: An Annotated Checklist." In Pennsylvania Folklife, vol. 26:4 (Summer 1977), pp. 2-24. Page: 20

Much of the background of the Mennonite movement is to be traced directly to Switzerland. This movement was active back in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and records indicate attempts to root these people out because of their refusal to bear arms, a trait they adhere to today with all the tenacity they can command.
The government in time of war can make Mennonite and Amish boys rake leaves, but can't get them to bear arms!
Mennonite communities had existed in the Palatinate since 1527, and to these places like-believers in Switzerland would flee across frontiers; by 1671 a considerable emigration took place when seven hundred persons left their native home to settle on the banks of the Rhine.
We are now approaching the time when these early Mennonite settlers in the Palatinate and the newcomers agreed to help their compatriots in Switzerland who left there in after years--willingly, or otherwise. They finally found themselves under such a heavy yoke that they decided on a large movement of their people to America, and the settlement at Pequea, in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, resulted.
Zurich and Berne, in Switzerland, published decrees forbidding emigration, the latter city rescinding a policy previously planned, for a Swiss colony to settle in Georgia, and up through the Carolinas.
The main reasons for emigration from Europe to America, by the Germans, motivated and included also the Huguenots; the latter got into this picture by reason of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, by Louis XIV, in France, in 1685, when many of France's most substantial citizens went to Holland, Germany and Switzerland, all in fear of their lives.
In connection with the subject of enforced slavery it may be noted that Huguenots from France were likewise sold as galley slaves. In 1896, Henry S. Dotterer, editor of "Historical Notes Relating to the Pennsylvania Reformed Church," was making some researches in the archives of Dordrecht, Holland. Here he discovered a printed list of Huguenot galley slaves who had been released by order of Louis XIV of France, on condition that they leave the realm.

Lancaster Pennsylvania
Wherever there was limestone or black walnut trees, there you would soon find Germans either farming, or setting up a home prior to turning the soil, for they liked limestone. This for the reason it made fine stone for building homes and churches, as well as lime for fertilizer. Walnut trees growing in healthy stands were also a good sign of fertility of the soil.
Lands Quickly Taken Up.-Once the lands on the east side of the Susquehanna were well taken up, the movements went to the west, and to the north, York and Cumberland timber falling early under the axe of the pioneer farmer and woodsman. The spread was not long in coming, once the troubles with the Indians were controlled.
The Revolution was to prove that the Germans were loyal to the land they had come to populate and to cultivate. And if they fought against the principles and demands of the English crown, they did it alongside hardlaced and stiffbacked Presbyterians whose veins were filled with blood like that of the enemy they fought.

But you must give the Germans their due: they were not among the last to fight--but among the first. It was not the Mennonite who fought with ball and musket--he fought with the plow. Others of his countrymen who had no scruples about "bearing arms" were the ones who went out with Washington to wallop the would-be "tax-leviers." 
Those who did not fight were self-sustaining and self-sufficient, and their efforts at farming and making warm clothing, and those who made shot and shell, contributed no little in making a revolution of the people an American independence indeed. 
In this group of arrivals after 1710, there must be noted that a number of Pennsylvania Germans under the leadership of Jost Hite, moved down the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, to settle the counties of Frederick, Rockingham and Shenandoah. The west- ern part of North Carolina had a large number of such settlers emigrate from Pennsylvania. The French and Indian War was still simmering when some Pennsylvania Germans went to Ohio, to be followed bv larger numbers at the close of the Revolution. Then to Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Texas, California, etc.
People in those states to the west of us probably feel that they are "Westerners," but would it be improper to say that they are in a large sense "Western Pennsylvania Germans?" or "Pennsylvania Germans in the West?" 
The Pennsylvania German farers were good farmers by practically all standards. They were descended through thirty generations of tillers of the soil. All things being equal in their Old World haunts they would have been on the average well-to-do. But the wars kept them poor, or, if they were on the wrong side of the political or religious "fence" they again were likely to be mulct of what they had.Travel, being what it was in those days, was expensive, and the more so because unscrupulous ship owners found they could get the price, either from the pioneer or some one who would pay for this passage. 
Those who undertook to pay off their passage under a bond which sometimes took twenty years to redeem, would be termed "redemptioners." This took on a form of "white servitude" in the early days, and much of interest may be read about the subject.
Fine Soil Ready in Pennsylvania. - It has been pointed out that the situation greeting the newcomers was pretty nearly made to order. There was little barrenness; fertilization was not necessary in the same degree that it was in Germany, where tilling for many years required more attention.
The farmers were smart enough to rotate their crops; they grazed cattle for fattening and got back fertilizer quite precious. They fed their horses well, so that they could do twice as much work in a day as horses underfed; they were kept warm in winter, and were excused from doing extra work, such as dragging logs, or pleasure driving.
"Swiss Barns" Erected. - The early pioneers first cleared sufficient land to get a start on farming; then came an immense barn, well built, of the "Swiss" type. The first barns were built of logs. Later there were some of stone, then frame or brick. Interesting features of some of the barns included the stars on the sides and ends; also the ventilator designs obtained by omissions of bricks which formed the designs, or cut-outs in the odd shapes of hearts, diamonds, quarter-moons, clubs, etc.
Most barns were double-deckers, and allowed for threshing-floors, mows and lofts for storing bay. The complete barns had a granary on the upper floor, a cellar under the drive-way, in addition to the usual stalls for horses and cattle. They ranged from 50 to 60 feet wide, and 60 to 120 feet long, with an overhang of 8 to 10 feet beyond the stable doors.
Originally barns and houses had thatched roofs; in later years they were shingled, slated, or tinned. If painted, it generally was of deep red, for lasting qualities.
Lumber could be obtained on the spot; likewise good building stone might be found nearby, needing but the blows of the stone mason to dress them for use. But it might be a decade or two until they got around to the building of a substantial house. Houses built by the poineers were generally of logs, if the builder was pioneering some miles away from centers of population. These could be built in a few days after a clearing was made.
Two-story houses were the general rule at the out- set, with the familiar two-and-a-half-story to follow. The first with pitched roof, and with cornices run across the gables and around the first story.
Types of Construction. - The English and Scotch fashion was to build the chimney at the gable-end, but the German style was to bring it right up through the center of the house. Most of them seemed to be spacious, with open fire-places in most rooms, and with deep-set window and door frames. Window weights were used quite early.
Travelers usually note on these older houses the odd inscriptions, verses, dates or initials found well up on the gable wall. This is a hangover from customs in Germany and Switzerland.
There are many variations held by people today as to the meanings of the decorations on barns, cer- tain markings found here and there on houses and necessary outbuildings; even on cooking utensils, etc. 
Gaudy Colors and Designs. - It will hardly suffice to say that the farmer liked to have his barn look attractive, and to be in good state of repair, as a sign of his progress and success; nor that his wife was odd, in that she had a lot of dishes with gaudy decorations of birds, flowers, alphabets, scenes and verses painted thereon; nor that the good housewife had these same decorations on her bed linens, and her furniture as well.
Most of the decorative schemes came from the Old World, a throw-off, or hand-me-down from ancient Persian and Chinese ideas. We are informed that German houses today have on their walls counterparts of many of the ideas expressed by our own native artists with a slight touch or blend of native instinct which do not in the least detract from the value or interest of the items in question.
The farmers were not alone the great builders. We had the well-known preachers and teachers; scientists and astronomers; inventors and many others. A catalog of German firsts in Pennsylvania is an imposing array of talent and accomplishment.

German Language Remained with Newcomer. - Of the language and literature of the Pennsylvania Germans we had at best be brief-the students and scholars are still trying to define and settle the matter.
The remarkable thing about the "dialect" as it is called, is that there should remain so much of it in use today in sections where there is likewise an abundant use of English. Two hundred years ago there was every reason for them to continue using the only language they knew. With all the intermarriages of these people with English, Scotch and Irish families, the "Dutch" will "out."
From the days of their residence in Europe, until comparatively modern times they have been without the benefit of any grammar or book of guidance for the use of the "dialect" conversation on the street or in the home.
Early Printers. - The Pennsylvania Germans had printing shops in operation in larger centers of population almost as soon at they could get the material to set up shop.
Thus the press of Christopher Sauer had printed three editions of the Bible, complete, in little Germantown, before there was one edition of the same book printed in Philadelphia in English. A few years before his first Bible Sauer had printed a large hymn-book entitled "Zionitischer Wayrauchshugel," containing 654 hymns in 33 divisions. 
Conrad Beissel and his Ephrata "Breuderschaft" were responsible for the publishing of a number of remarkable books for those times, including a complete translation of Van Bragt's "Blutige Schauplatz oder Martyrer Spiegel" in German from the Holland Dutch, at the Cloisters, at Ephrata. Fifteen men worked for three years to complete translations, make the paper and print and bind this massive work, up to that time about the largest single book published in the New World.
Education was at first frowned on by the farmers who thought their children needed little more than to be able to read and *rite and figure a little bit. In later years they found that education was the best bet, and with the exception of the Amish, most other denominations and sects have gone over to college education. 
The German language, or dialect as it is more familiarly known, gave way in part to English as the official language of the Commonwealth in 1836. But it did not "give way" in many homes, and towns!

Variety of Faiths: - The religious background and life of the Germans is varied, to say the least. We have little space to detail them at length, but separate ac- counts may be found in libraries for particular readers.
The German Baptists, or Brethren, are a denomination of Christians who emigrated to this country from Germany between the years 1718 and 1730; they are commonly called Dunkers; but they have assumed for themselves the name of "Brethren."
The United Brethren in Christ came into activity in the United States about 1755, differing in name from the Moravians, or Unitas Fratrum, (or United Brethren's Church) by adding "in Christ." The former mentioned denomination enjoys a healthy membership scattered throughout the country.
The Moravians (Unitas Fratrum), or United Brethren's Church, dates from 1722, descendants of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren who were persecuted in their native country, and who founded a colony under the patronage of Count Zinzendorf, on an estate of his in Upper Lusatia. American history is replete with accounts of activities of the Count, and David Zeisberger, who labored among and learned so much from his association with Indian tribes. Their establishments in the early days were primarily at Bethlehem, Nazareth and. Lititz.
The Schwenkfelders take their name from Casper Schwenkfeld von Ossing, who was born seven years after Martin Luther, with whom he had manv disagreements. This denomination arrived in Philadelphia on September 22, 1734, settling principally in Montgomery, Berks, Bucks and Lehigh counties.
Ephrata Cloister. - One of the most notable of the early pietist movements was this Ephrata community, under Conrad Beissel, who was born in Eberbach, in 1690. He was a baker, as was his father. He came to America in 1720, becoming a hermit on the Cocalico. Others built cabins around him and imitated his ascetic life. But any religion that prohibits race propagation soon eliminates itself.


Ulrich Johan Jacob Stehley* (1700 - 1776)

is our 5th great grandfather
Daughter of Ulrich Johan Jacob Stehley and Anna Maria Germann
Son of Mary Steel and John Stewart
Son of James Stewart and Jean Reid
Son of James Stewart and Phoebe Hinton Cox
Daughter of Noah Stewart and Mary Springer
Son of Mary Lou Ella Stewart and Charles William Lute
 

1 comment:

  1. Mary, the daughter of Ulrich & Anna Stehley married Christian Garber - Lancaster County Deed book GG pages 353 thru 356

    ReplyDelete